Industry Key Terms

Advanced Leveraging Tools

Advanced leveraging tools are systems that store bilingual pairs of text elements that can be reused (or “leveraged”) by translators.

Within computer-aided translation tools, advanced leveraging combines statistical analysis and linguistic intelligence to create a new category of fuzzy matches that can lead to an increase in translation productivity. It features full-text indexing capabilities that allow users to search and retrieve text strings of any length, such as full and fuzzy segments, paragraphs, terms and even sub-segments. Advanced leveraging is a technology that builds upon and extends the capabilities of classic Translation Memories (TMs).

Leveraging tools, traditionally called Translation Memory (TM), store translated segments of text (phrases, sentences, paragraphs, blocks, documents) that can be “recalled” if the same (or similar) text needs to be translated again; they are widely used where repeated updates are the norm (e.g. in product documentation, technical manuals, etc.), and incorporate many language handling features that automate the process of translation.

Advanced leveraging tools add more functionality to TMs; by indexing matched documents, rather than creating a database of small matched segments of the documents, the translator has more flexibility in identifying matches, and better access to linguistic context, to show meaning, style, and tone. Even more advanced leveraging approaches borrow methods from Example‐Based Machine Translation


Leveraging Tools, Language Technology Industry Definition / Taxonomy, LT-Innovate [Accessed at]

Robert J. Kuhns, Advanced Leveraging: The New Generation of TMs, TAUS, 29 October 2007 [Accessed at]

Multilingual Magazine, Glossary, 2014 Resource Directory and Editorial Index 2013. [Accessed at]


Alignment is the arrangement of correct matches between the source and the target language in parallel. The source and target files are compared and a high quality translation segment is created.

An alignment tool is software that can automatically create a document, known as a bitext, with both source and target text versions aligned. CAT tools match corresponding translation units using statistical and linguistic algorithms.

References: Kilgray memoQ 2014 Help.

BLEU (Bilingual Evaluation Understudy)

The Bilingual Evaluation Understudy, BLEU score, is a method for automatic evaluation of machine translated text. An algorithm measures the quality output of the machine processed text to that of human translated text. BLEU was one of the first metrics to achieve a high correlation with human judgments of quality and remains one of the most popular. Scores are calculated for individual translated segments — generally sentences — by comparing them with a set of good quality reference translations. Those scores are then averaged over the whole corpus to reach an estimate of the translation’s overall quality. Some criticisms include the measure of intelligibility or grammatical correctness which not taken into account.

Source: Papineni, K.; Roukos, S.; Ward, T.; Zhu, W. J. (2002), "BLEU: a method for automatic evaluation of machine translation".

Computer-assisted translation

Computer-assisted translation (CAT), also known as computer-aided translation, is the translation of a text using Computer-Assisted Translation software or of a text which has already been pre-processed using CAT software.

Computer-assisted translation (CAT) tools have been in use since the introduction of personal computers. Their primary purpose is to improve translator productivity and accuracy by providing tools such as document editors, glossaries, and translation memory, in a single integrated translation environment or workbench. These tools have evolved along with the computing and networking industries, first as stand‐alone tools to be used on a single computer, to client‐server tools to be used on a company network, to web based tools where the service and tools are delivered via the Internet.

CAT tools

A CAT tool is computer-assisted translation software which may include such tools as spell-checks, grammar checks, terminology management software, concordancers, bitext aligners, translation memory tools, and others.

CAT Tools are primarily used to incorporate translation memory and specific terminology into the translator’s work. The software will make suggestions during editing as to the re-use of previously translated text or similar matches or controlled language in order to improve productivity.


Translation Centre for Bodies of the European Union (CdT).

LT-Innovate, LT2013: Status and Potential of the European Language Technology Markets, pp. 63. [Accessed at].

EN 15038

The European quality standard EN 15038 for translation services describes the required processes and resources that language service providers must use in order to be EN 15038 certified.

The EN 15038 translation services standard offers both language service providers and their clients a description and definition of the entire service; at the same time it is designed to guide service providers with a set of procedures and requirements to meet market needs.

EN 15038:2006 covers the core translation process and all other related aspects involved in providing the service, including quality assurance and traceability. Strength in selecting the best human and technical resources, project management capability and important procedures to ensure quality are all requirements to pass in order to gain the EN 15038 certification. The development and maintenance of documented quality management system helps to coordinate the complete process for preparation, translation, checking, revision, proofreading and final verification.

The EN 15038 standard was published in 2006 by the European Committee for Standardization specifically for the translation industry to define the processes producing quality translation services that are fit for purpose. It has influenced the global industry with a benchmark for services. EN 15038 has been submitted to ISO TC 37 for further development and it is expected that ISO 17100 will soon be approved and published as a universal standard.

LTC was one of the first companies certified to the EN15038 standard for translation services. In fact, LTC surpasses the basic guidelines and performs further procedures as part of a complete solution. These include the preparation of documents, translation, revision, monitoring consistency, delivery and more. By upholding superior service performance and quality, any improvements can be continuously identified.

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